Category Archives: Bed Bugs California

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Bed bugs | DermNet

What is a bed bug?

The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is a blood-sucking human parasite that is found worldwide. Bed bugs come from the insect family Cimicidae. The bed bug is oval shaped, flat, reddish brown, and up to 5 mm long. Immature bed bugs are smaller than adults and may be translucent to light yellow.

Bed bugs

Bed bugs are attracted by warmth and generally feed at night. They can survive for long periods (e.g. up to one year) without feeding. In developed countries, bed bugs often hide in the cracks and crevices of mattresses, bed frames, and other nearby structures. They can travel in furniture, luggage, and clothing, or can migrate through holes in walls, water pipes, or gutters. In developing countries, bed bugs can be found in the cracks and crevices of the walls of mud houses, as well as thatched roofs. Reports of bed bug infestations appear to be increasing in homes, apartments, hotel rooms, hospitals, and hostels in developed countries. This may be due to increased international travel, immigration, and insecticide resistance.

There is currently no scientific evidence that bed bugs can transmit other human diseases, although there is a debate on whether they are implicated in Hepatitis B and Chagas disease transmission.

Bed bugs usually feed without detection by the host, although some people with bed bug infestations report a restless night's sleep. Bed bugs generally bite in a linear pattern (a line) on exposed areas of skin such as the face, neck, hand, and arms. Most patients do not experience a reaction to a bed bug bite, and the only evidence is a tiny punctum (hole) at the site of the bite.

When a reaction occurs, the lesions are most commonly 2 to 5 mm red, itchy bumps. If they are not scratched they usually resolve in a week or so.

Some people experience significant skin reactions to the bites including:

These reactions may evolve into a bullous rash (fluid-filled blisters) and may become complicated by secondary bacterial infections such as impetigo or cellulitis.

Systemic reactions that have been rarely associated with bed bugs include asthma and anaphylaxis.

Bed bug bites

Treatment is not generally required. However, various treatments may relieve the symptoms of bed bug bites:

Firstly bed bugs must be correctly identified. A thorough search of the cracks and crevices of the bed and surrounding areas should be undertaken to detect the easily visible bed bugs or their faecal matter.

Eradication of bed bugs can be difficult and requires chemical and non-chemical control strategies. Hire a licensed professional pesticide applicator with experience in treating bed bugs.For further details, refer to the links in our Related information section below.

Once clear of bed bugs prevent recurrence by enclosing mattress and pillows, removing clutter, and reducing hiding places for the bugs. Each bed leg or caster can be placed in a container of talcum powder or wrapped in adhesive tape (sticky side out) to act as a barrier to the bugs.

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The weirdest and wildest mating rituals in the animal world, from bed bugs to giraffes – ABC News

Have you ever wondered which animals getfreakiest between the sheets?

The answer to that is, literally, probably bed bugs.

But what about octopus? Why do lobsters shoot urine from their faces? And what is "penis fencing"?

If these are the questions keeping you up at night, read on.

The sport of fencing where opponents spar using modified swords or "foils" is thought to have emergedaround the 14th or 15th centuries.

But in nature, it's existedfar longer.

Pseudobiceros is a genus of flatworm flat, soft-bodied,aquatic animals that also engagesin fencing.

But unlike the human sport, flatworms don't use "foils". They use their penises.

The other difference is thatin"penis fencing", the loser ends up pregnant.

Pseudobicerosare hermaphrodites the majority of the body mass of species like the Persian carpet flatworm (Pseudobiceros bedfordi) comprises both testes and ovaries.

During battle, each assailant exists as a kind of Schrdinger's flatworm, whereinbothanimalsare simultaneously the potential father andmother.

The first penetration decides their fate.

A successful strikealmost anywhere on the bodysees sperm injected into the skin, where it will migrate through pores tofertilise the eggs of the disappointed mother-to-be.

Once the deed is done, the "father"exits the scene to fence again, while the expectant mother will gestate their unwelcomeclutchfor around 10 days.

In the world of flatworms,carrying fertilised eggs is laborious, and gestation putsa temporary hiatus on seeking opportunities to further spreadone's genes. So flatworms will fight ferociously to avoid that fate.

Here's a sentence you probably didn't think you'd read today: female lobsters urinate out ofholesin their faceto show a male they're interested in mating.

And that's only the start of their freakiness.

The urine, which is expelled from holes known as nephropores at the base of the lobsters' second antennae, contain pheromones to convey her gender and potentialsuitability as a mate.

"They have theseremarkable,weirdly orientated organs which arethe equivalent of our kidneys basically," says Tomer Ventura, a scientist working in crustacean aquaculture at the University of the Sunshine Coast.

"They're situated pretty much in theircheeks under the antennae."

Dr Ventura, who has pioneeredgene-silencing technology that can be used in commercial aquaculture to produce a single-sex population of crustaceans, says thatin wild lobsters, the dominant male sits in a den from where he vets potential suitors.

To make sure he cops a full blast of the spicypheromone mix, the female uses her gills to create a current, wafting it in his general direction.

"She squirts her urine directly into the den where the dominant male is," Dr Ventura says.

If he's picking up what she's putting down, she'll be invited inside, where he'll provide protection whilesheremoves her carapace her shell replacing it with a fresher, cleaner model.

The courting ritualhas mostly been studied in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, and while it might be the sort of behaviour you'd expect from American crustaceans, it's also true of our own spiny lobster, among others, Dr Ventura says.

He says in lobsters, the male produces a spermatophore a capsule of sperm, which also contains a protective gelatinous matrixthat sets like a sticky concrete on contact with water.

The female carries that spermatophore around with her until she's ready to release her eggs.

"The female releases virtually millions of eggs while scraping the surface of the spermatophore to reveal the intact sperm.

"[At the same time she's]curling her tail to release that cement that sticks the fertilised eggs onto her swimming legs in the tail."

At this point it's probably safest toassume there'surine involved unlessstated otherwise.

In the case of giraffes, males will smell the hindquarters of the female, often flaring his upper lip in what is known as a "flehman response".

While it has the appearance of a grimace, the flehman response draws air into the vomeronasal organ an olfactory sense organ in the nasal cavity above the roof of the mouth which assists in the detection ofpheromones.

He's checking to see if she's ovulating and ready to mate.

But if he's not convinced, the male will encourage her to urinate by rubbing her hindquarters.

He'll then taste her urine, and if he picks up the signals he's after, will follow her around in the hopes of mating.

In the wild, he won't be the only one showing an interestthough, and will need to fight off other males using his huge neck to pummel his rivals, while attempting to plunge his ossicones horn-like appendages on his head into their flesh.

If you've ever had bed bugs and thought, "gross, I'm sharing my bed with bugs", strap in.

Humans and bed bugs have a long history.

Research suggests bed bugs were originally bat specialists, feeding on the winged creatures in caves in Africa.

But as our ancestors moved into caves millions of years ago, bed bugs decided we were a tastier option and shifted their allegiance.

As humans spread from Africa and across Eurasia, we took the bed bugs with us.

We can't really begrudge the bed bugs for feeding on our bloodthough. They need all the energy they can get formating.

Adult bed bugs become most active during witching hour between about midnight and 5am.

They locate their sleeping hosts by detecting exhaled CO2 and body heat, and once fed, are in the mood for love.

Cue Barry White? Not quite.

The male bed bug stabs his reproductive organ through the right side of the female's body wallinto what is called her Organ of Berlese.

The male's sperm enters the body cavity, migrates to her ovaries and fertilises her eggs.

Females may be stabbed multiple times by different males during one outing, and will retreat to recover, lesttheir traumatic mating prove fatal.

How many eggs and offspring she is capable of producing depends on how much blood of yours she's able to consume in her lifetime of between 100 and 300 days.

Of course octopus are on the list. They've got eight legs, nine brains and only a year or so to use them.

Research has observed at least one female octopus strangling her partnerduring copulation.

Another study observed a smallmale Octopus cyanea, also known as big blue octopus, mating with a larger female 12 times over a three-and-a-half-hour period while she foraged for food in Palau, Micronesia.

Perhaps fed up, hungry or both, on his 13th attempt, she suffocated him, took him back to her den, and "spent two days cannibalising him".

Michael Amor, a research assistant in the aquatic zoologydepartment at the Western Australian Museum,says it's probably not a great surprise that octopus sometimes eat their mates.

"They're not the most social beings. Theremight not be that [emotional] barrier to feeling you shouldn't eat your neighbour," Dr Amor said.

Research published last yearalso showed female octopuses throwing shells and other debris at males to ward off their unwanted advances.

It probably makes sense that a female should be discerningabout whofathersher children. It's typically her only shot at reproduction, and the egg-brooding period can be especially traumatic.

For most shallow-water octopus species, once the deed is done the female sits on her eggs for a period of one to three months.

Even in these instances, females have been known to eat their own arms rather than leave the nest in search of food, according to Dr Amor.

But in deeper water, where conditions areharsher and colder, thingscan stretch out much longer.

Back in 2014, research published in PLOSdetailed the exploits ofa female deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica in 1,397 metres of water on a sloping wall in the Submarine Canyon off central California.

Using a remotely operated vehicle, scientists first encountered the female over a period of a few weeks, first without eggs and then shortly after having laid them.

Seizing the opportunity to measure the brooding time of a deep-sea octopus, the researchers endeavoured to monitor how long she sat on her clutch.

Four years later, they were still watching.

The eggs had continued to grow, whilst she was diminishing in size and had becomepale, with cloudy eyes and slack skin.

On the researchers'final visit, after 53 months, only the "tattered remnants of empty egg capsules" remained in her place.

It was the longest-known egg-brooding period for any animal.

Olaf Meynecke spent years researching mud crabs and says after what he's seen, he can no longer eat the feistycrustaceans.

For Dr Meynecke, a marine ecologist at Griffith University who now studies whales, it wasn'tso much how they mate as what they eat.

"They're literally turning rotten meat into their own meat, whichwe then love to eat," he says.

On the bow-chicka-wow-wowscale, mud crabs are about mid-range, but there's some research, including some conducted by Dr Meynecke,that earns them the final place on this list.

Typically mud crabs hang around coastal, mangrove-lined waterways in the tropics and sub-tropics.

When it comes to mating, the male jumps on top of the female, and will basically hitch a ride around with her for a few days.

In some instances, the males have been known to pick up moulted females and carry themaroundfor several days while mating.

Similar to lobsters, the male deposits a spermatophore capsule that the female carries with her until she's ready to fertilise her eggs.

Not known to be great long-distance swimmers, the females typically hang around their estuaries for most of their life cycle.

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However, some large, gravid females have been found 50 kilometres or more offshore.

Dr Meynecke's team wanted to see if they were returning back to their estuaries after such an epic journey.

"Wetaggedsomeof those females in the Logan River [in south-east Queensland]," he said.

"They were acoustic tags about $800 tags on eachcrab."

Unfortunately for Dr Meynecke's hip pocket, the crabs never returned.

The hypothesis is thata certain proportion of older females crabs make a one-way journey for a final reproductive effort, culminating in the release of their fertilised eggs into the East Australia Currentto disperse their genes far and wide.

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5 Best Bed Bug Mattress Covers – Oct. 2022 – BestReviews

Far too many people believe that when you get bed bugs, your only solution is to get rid of your mattress and box springs. That is a false rumor fueled by panic and hysteria. The truth is simpler and cheaper.

When a pest-control company treats your house for bed bugs with modern pesticides, it can take six to eight weeks to eliminate them. During that time, you dont want to get bitten, but you dont need to throw away your mattresses, either. The solution is a mattress cover that seals the bed bugs inside and prevents them from escaping the pesticides that were put on your mattress and box springs to kill them.

Whether youre dealing with a bed bug infestation or just want to take a proactive stance against them, weve got the information you need to find a great bed bug mattress cover that will give you peace of mind.

The only mattress protection that keeps out bed bugs is a true mattress encasement that completely encloses the entire mattress top, bottom, and the four sides. Any other mattress cover is only for spills or dust mites. For bed bugs, you need six-sided protection.

The only mattress protection that keeps out bed bugs is a true mattress encasement that completely encloses the entire mattress top, bottom, and the four sides. Any other mattress cover is only for spills or dust mites. For bed bugs, you need six-sided protection.

Installing a mattress cover means putting the entire mattress inside the mattress cover and zipping it closed. This is why mattress covers are sometimes called mattress encasements. Queen, king, and California king mattresses are quite heavy. Putting a mattress cover on one of those is a two- or three-person job. Be prepared for that.

Stretchable fabrics will ensure a tighter fit that wont move or rumple beneath you when youre sleeping. Due to the plastic used in their construction, mattress covers dont always stretch. The ones that do will note that in the description.

"Bed bugs are white when they are young. They only gain their red color after feeding on blood."



There is no state or federal regulation defining what hypoallergenic is or means. According to the best medical practices, it means a fabric or substance that wont cause or trigger allergies. Mattress covers use a wide variety of fabrics and materials to meet this definition. The most common material is plastic or another synthetic material. Tightly woven fabrics, such as cotton that prevents dust mites from penetrating the weave, are considered hypoallergenic. Dust mites are smaller than bed bugs, so any mattress cover that is hypoallergenic will prevent the bed bugs from moving through the material.

The weak point in any mattress cover is the zipper specifically the endpoint of the zipper. If there is going to be any gap, that is where it will be. To compensate, manufacturers will put Velcro or some other cover over the end of the zipper when it closes.

Plastic sheets or covers make noise when you lie on them or toss and turn during the night. Because mattress covers are designed to address a wide range of issues over and above just bed bugs, many of them will be made of plastic or have plastic undercoating. Some dont have any plastic, relying instead on a fine weave to stop the bed bugs from passing through.

Any mattress cover that relies on plastic to stop bed bug movement or catch spills is going to be hotter to sleep on than non-plastic ones. Manufacturers will put terry cloth or some other fabric on top of the plastic to let it breathe and stay cool, but heat will always be an issue when plastic is involved.

Its important to be able to clean the mattress cover on a regular basis. Some old mattress covers cant be machine washed because of the plastic in them; they must be dry cleaned. Some have plastic that can be machine washed and hung out to dry or dried on very low heat. Pay close attention to the cleaning instructions in order to extend the life of your mattress cover.

Did you know?

Bed bugs can survive for six or eight months without feeding.



Inexpensive: Low-priced mattress covers between $20 and $30 usually have five-year limited warranties or highly restrictive guarantees. They are made of plastic, PVC, and other synthetic materials that are very waterproof but also make a lot of crinkling noises. There will be some heat issues to deal with, too.

Mid-range: A mattress cover in the medium price range between $30 and $45 will have less plastic and crinkle to it. Water-resistant materials, such as tightly woven polyester, are common, as are ten-year warranties. These mattress covers will make an effort to address the heat issues.

Expensive: Most mattress covers above $45 have a ten-year warranty and a high thread count to help prevent bed bug penetration. These products tend to be quiet and cool.

Pull the mattress halfway off the bed to begin putting the mattress cover on the end of it. Once the cover has been pulled all the way on, tilt the mattress up so it is standing on the floor, and pull the mattress cover over the rest of the mattress.

Dont close the zippers until the mattress cover is completely on the mattress. Check it for pulls or wrinkles. Once it is smooth and flat on the mattress, then you can close the zippers.

Use a mattress cover on the box springs as well as the mattress. Bed bugs often live in the box springs before they start living in the mattress.

Prior to installing the mattress covers, make sure the mattress and box springs have been treated with a bed bug insecticide and an IGR (insect growth regulator). Make sure your pest control company has used both. The mattress cover will then trap them inside with the pesticides.

Other mattress covers we looked at include the HOSPITOLOGY PRODUCTS Sleep Defense System, which is specifically billed as a mattress encasement. It has an extra-soft polyester knit covering a polyurethane waterproof layer. One nice feature we liked was the zippers on three sides.

Another product we appreciated was the PlushDeluxe Premium Zippered Mattress Encasement. This product is also specifically called an encasement as opposed to a cover. It is advertised as being free of vinyl, PVC, and phthalate. It has a terry cloth exterior.

Q. Do bed bugs live in the mattress?

A. This is a common misunderstanding. Bed bugs will live or nest in mattresses mainly in the later stages of an infestation when population pressure begins forcing them out of their normal habitat. They like to live within 10 to 15 feet of their food source (you), so they will nest behind the baseboards at the head of the bed, around the cracks and crevices near the foot of the bed, or within bedside tables. They also frequent windows and window shades and headboards, footboards, and box springs. Only after their population grows will they begin living in the seams of the mattress.

Q. Can mattress encasements be dried in the dryer?

A. The only good answer is, Yes, but ... Yes, you can dry them in the dryer, but you should only dry them on low heat or the gentle cycle. The tumbling action is hard on them regardless of which cycle you use, so the best solution is to hang them from a clothesline outside.

Q. What is the difference between a mattress cover and a mattress encasement?

A. That depends on the manufacturer. A mattress encasement always means a zippered bag that covers the entire mattress on the top, bottom, and sides. When the zipper is closed, it completely seals off the mattress. A mattress cover can be the same thing, or it can simply be a covering for the top of the mattress to prevent leaks or spills from soaking the mattress. Read the fine print to be sure.

Q. What diseases do bed bugs carry?

A. Bed bugs arent known to be vectors for any diseases at all. Their bites are painless when they bite you, but after you wake up, they may begin itching. Bed bugs are unpleasant and icky, but they are not a direct danger to human health.

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Worst cities for bed bugs: Heres where New York City …

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. As more Americans begin to travel during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, bed bugs are also hitching rides across the country and some cities are seeing a surge in bed bugs more than others.

Orkin, a company that provides essential pest control services, ranked the cities where bed bugs have been most reported. Its list is based on treatment data from the metro areas where Orkin performed the most bed bug treatments from Dec. 1, 2020, through Nov. 30, 2021. The ranking includes both residential and commercial treatments.

So where does New York City rank on Orkins 2022 Top 50 Bed Bug Cities List?

New York ranks third, according to the list up nine spots from 2021s list.

Chicago and Philadelphia took the number one and two spots, respectively.

As consumers plan to travel this year, Orkin reminds Americans that bed bugs are still very much a threat. And taking into consideration the staffing shortages in the hospitality industry, its possible that bed bugs are not being monitored as often as desired, which is why diligent examination is key, Orkin says.

Bed bugs are typically 3/16 inch long, red to dark brown in color and are mostly nocturnal insects that come out of hiding to take blood meals from sleeping humans, according to Orkin. They are hematophagous, which means blood is their only food source. They can travel from place to place with ease, clinging to items such as luggage, purses and other personal belongings.

Bed bugs are a concern for everyone because they are master hitchhikers, traveling home with people when they likely dont realize it, said Ben Hottel, an Orkin entomologist. Their nature of hiding in difficult-to-find cracks and crevices can make them hard to control, which is why involving a trained professional at the sight of an introduction is recommended.

The pests are known for rapid population growth as females can deposit one to five eggs a day and may lay 200 to 500 eggs in their lifetime. They can survive for several months while waiting for their next blood meal, so theyre likely to emerge when a food source, like humans, become available.

Here are the top 10 bed bug cities, according to Orkin. The numbers in parentheses indicate if a city has ranked higher or lower than last years list.

Orkin also provided some tips for homeowners and travels to prevent bed bugs.

Inspect your home for signs of bed bugs regularly. Check the places during the day, including mattress tags and seams, and behind baseboards, headboards, electrical outlets and picture frames. Inspect when you move in, after a trip, when a service worker visits or after guests stay overnight, Orkin says.

You should also decrease clutter around your home to make it easier to spot bed bugs on your own or during professional inspections. And examine all secondhand furniture before bringing it inside your home.

During travel, Orkin says to remember the acronym S.L.E.E.P. to inspect for bed bugs.


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One California City Makes List Of Top U.S. Cities For Bed Bugs – iHeartRadio

As travel begins to surge again, bed bugs have also popped up more frequently in various cities across the United States.

Bed bugs are known for rapidly populating. "Bed bugs are a concern for everyone because they are master hitchhikers, traveling home with people when they likely don't realize it," said Ben Hottel, an Orkin entomologist. "Their nature of hiding in difficult-to-find cracks and crevices can make them hard to control, which is why involving a trained professional at the sight of an introduction is recommended."

To keep people aware of bed bugs and which cities are more likely to have them, Orkin released a list of the top U.S. cities for bed bugs. They conducted their study "based on treatment data from the metro areas where Orkin performed the most bed bug treatments from December 1, 2020 November 30, 2021.

So which California city made it onto the list?

Turns out, San Francisco is one of the top U.S. cities for bed bugs. The city was ranked No. 19 on the list.

Here's the full list of cities according to Orkin:

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