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Insect Bed Bugs
Bed bugs are small, oval, non flying insects that belong to the insect familyCimicidae, which includes three species that bite people. Adult bed bugs reach 5-7 mm in length, while nymphs (juveniles) are as small as 1.5 mm. Bed bugs have flat bodies and may sometimes be mistaken forticksor small cockroaches. Bed bugs feed by sucking blood from humans or animals. Adult bed bugs are reddish brown in color, appearing more reddish after feeding on a blood meal. Nymphs are clear in color and appear bright red after feeding. The wings of bed bugs are vestigial, so they cannot fly.
Several different kinds of insects resemble bed bugs, specimens should be carefully compared with good reference images to confirm their identity. If any questions remain regarding the identity of your samples, then submit them to a competent entomologist for evaluation. Bed bugs bite with piercing and sucking mouthparts, similar to mosquitoes and bites result in local swelling and irritation like abad mosquito bite. However, unlike some other blood-feeding insects bed bugs probably arenotimportant carriers of human disease. While digesting a meal bed bugs excrete black fecal material (digested blood) that accumulates where they hide and is characteristic of an infestation.
Since bed bugs don't fly, and not able to walk very far on their own, these bugs rely on us to move them from one place to another. Rooms generally become infested because bed bugs are carried into the room on our belongings. The bugs can hide themselves in pillows, blankets, sleeping bags, backpacks, towels, clothing, and so forth, when transported from an infested to an uninfested room.
Bed bugs are bloodsucking insects. They are normally out at night just before dawn, with a peak feeding period of about an hour before sunrise. Bed bugs may attempt to feed at other times if given the opportunity and have been observed feeding during all periods of the day. They reach their host by walking, or sometimes climb the walls to the ceiling and drop down on feeling a heat wave. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts by warmth and the presence ofcarbon dioxide. The bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow feeding tubes. With one tube it injects its saliva, which containsanticoagulantsandanesthetics, while with the other it withdraws the bloodof its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bug returns to its hiding place. The bites cannot usually be felt until some minutes or hours later, as a dermatological reaction to the injected agents, and the first indication of a bite usually comes from the desire to scratch the bite site. Because of their natural aversion for sunlight, bed bugs come out at night.
Bed bugs were originally brought to theUnited Statesby early colonists fromEurope. Bed bugs thrive in places with high occupancy, such as hotels. Bed bugs were believed to be altogether eradicated 50 years ago in the United States and elsewhere with the widespread use of DDT. One recent theory about bed bug reappearance involves potential geographic epicentres. Investigators have found three apparent United States epicentres at poultry facilities inArkansas,Texas, andDelaware. It was determined that workers in these facilities were the main spreaders of these bed bugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work. Bed bug populations in the United States have increased by 500 percent in the past few years. The cause of this resurgence is still uncertain, but most believe it is related to increased international travel and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs. In the last few years, the use of baits rather than insecticide sprays is believed to have contributed to the increase.With the advent ofcockroachbait in the early 1990s, the use of residual insecticides and other liquid sprays were drastically reduced. As it turned out, pest control professionals had not realized that during their monthly treatments for cockroaches (particularly the German cockroach,which infests hotels as bed bugs do) they had helped in the control of bed bugs. This process may have started with the use of DDT but it is no coincidence that the dramatic rise in bed bug activity came approximately 10 or so years after professionals stopped spraying for cockroach activity.
Bed bugs are small wingless insects that feed solely upon the blood of warm-blooded animals. Bed bugs and their relatives have evolved as nest parasites. Certain kinds inhabit bird nests and bat roosts and await the return of their hosts; others have adapted well to living in the '˜nests' (homes) of people. Hatchling bed bugs are about the size of a poppy seed, and adults are about 1/4 of an inch in length. From above they are oval in shape, but are flattened from top to bottom.
Their color ranges from nearly white (just after molting) or a light tan to a deep brown or burnt orange. The host's blood may appear as a dark red or black mass within the bug's body. Because they never develop wings, bed bugs cannot fly. When disturbed, bed bugs actively seek shelter in dark cracks and crevices. Cast skins of bed bugs are sometimes discovered. Although such a finding confirms that bed bugs had been present previously, it does not confirm that any continue to infest the residence. Thus, inspect carefully for live crawling bed bugs. Because many other kinds of small brown bugs may be discovered, it is critical to ensure that the bugs are correctly identified.
They will usually bite once a week or so, and they can actually live for a long time without feeding - usually six months, but sometimes over a year.
Bed bugs can infest all kinds of different places in your bedroom. Most often they're in the mattress - in the seams, the box springs, or sometimes the linens. However, they can really be anywhere near where people sleep - furniture within crawling distance, carpet, books, phones - they've been found in all kinds of random things, because they don't create a nest, they just hide somewhere.
Bed bugs used to be nearly completely eliminated in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe - largely because of DDT and because of certain chemicals used against roaches. In recent years, however, there have been rising levels of infestations because
Can bed bugs hurt me?
No, they aren't actually dangerous. However, the bites are annoying and they can cause skin irritation and rashes, especially if you've got a lot of them in the mattress. So it's always a good idea to get rid of them - because each bug can lay four or five eggs a day, leading to a pretty big batch of them if you leave things alone.
Bed bug infestation complaints in New York City have been on the rise, and are expected to continue to rise, if drastic preventative measures are not taken! Did you know that NY bed bug infestations have been reported in public housing, shelters, daycare centers, and even upscale hotels? And did you know thatover 80% of bed bug infestations are found in the mattress or box spring?
Over 80% of bed bug infestations are found in the mattress or box spring! You can be pro-active and take preventative steps to avoid bed bug infestations in your home by protecting your bedding. The problem with bed bugs is that they infiltrate every aspect of your family's life. Even the most basic necessity, a good night's rest, can no longer be taken for granted. With the rapid increase in bed bug infestation, bed time is now fraught with anxiety. Read the tips below and learn what steps to take to protect your home and family.
Bed bug infestations are on the rise in New York City.
New York is known for many things'“it's known for its nightlife, great food, winning sports teams, and Broadway plays, to name but a few NY attractions. NYC is known as the city that never sleeps... but with SecureSleep'„¢ anti-bed bug encasement products, now they can! Watch this space as this page will keep you informed andhelp you stayclear of bed bug infestations. New York Pest Control Professionals are very busy these days, with a variety of treatments for bed bug infestations '“ some effective, some not. But statistics show that 52% of U.S. pest control firms routinely utilize bedding encasements in bed bug treatment protocols. Bed bugs arenocturnal parasites that have resurfaced in New York City. Theycan be hard to detect, but once you have them you will need an exterminator to get rid of them. Find out what you need to know.
And in cities like New York, where neighbors are often separated only by bricks and mortar, one person's infestation is everybody's problem, since bed bugs can crawl through walls and along wiring and pipes, and hitchhike on clothing, furniture, luggage and more. In this city of 8.3 million, it seems as if everyone has a bed bug story. Just ask Gale A. Brewer, a self-appointed bed bug evangelist and a City Council member from the Upper West Side. She prodded the Mayor's office to convene a bed bug advisory committee last fall, after years of what she and others felt were woeful public policy inadequacies in the face of the relentless advances of what some have called 'œthe pest of the century.' (The committee '” entomologists, civic policy experts and advocates for children, the elderly and others '” will issue its recommendations next month.)
Due to the difficulty in eliminating the bugs from the room or dwelling, the (suspected) bed is isolated, thus removing the insects' food source'”humans. Bedbugs cannot crosspetroleum jellyand have difficulty climbingmetalorglass, hence each of the bed legs is put in atincan(the bottom of which is thickly coated with petroleum jelly) to avoid movement from the bed to the hiding places. Although bedbugs cannot fly, they have been observed climbing a higher surface in order to then fall to a lower one, such as climbing a wall in order to fall onto a bed. They can also jump a few centimeters, and so could jump from the wall onto the nearby bed. Hence alternatively, a double-sided stickytape(such as carpet tape) is applied around each bed leg, or to keep each leg on a plastic furniture block in a tray of water. However, this does not prevent bugs from biting you on your couch or in other areas of your dwelling.
Each bed leg will be placed in these containers. Around the middle of each container, I'll tape a ring of super sticky fly tape or specialized insect tape. Thus, when they come out of hiding around 4am to 6am, bed bugs will try to climb up the leg of the bed to reach me. What they wont know is that they are climbing up a yogurt container and are going to be stuck in sticky tape. This bedbug will have a one way trip to his destiny. His little friends can come looking for him by all means!
I got some carpet tape and some empty yogurt containers. I put some masking tape over the containers incase the bed bugs can't climb up the bare plastic. I also sprayed a bit of hair spray on the masking tape to ensure some traction for the bed bugs. Then if you look at the far container, you will notice a white solid ring of carpet tape near the top. This is where I am hoping they will get stuck. Each bed leg on my bed (4 of them) will be inside one of these container trap thingies (see image).
A disinfected bed can be isolated and protected by applying a layer of duct tape around each leg of the bed'”using regular duct tape that has been curled lengthwise over on itself with the sticky side out. This creates a simple yet sticky barrier that will prevent most bedbugs from being able to crawl up the legs and onto the bed. This barrier technique may also be used in multiple strips or rows placed side by side to create an even stronger barrier (in areas where an infestation is heavy or where there exists a higher chance that bedbugs will attempt to crawl over the sticky tape). However, in using duct tape as a barrier, it is usually necessary to first place down a protective layer of some sort to prevent the duct tape from damaging the surfaces adhered to as well as to the prevent the duct tape barrier from leaving behind a sticky residue once it is finally removed. This protective layer, if used, can be created by placing a layer of painter's tape (also called masking tape) around the legs of the bed first'”before placing the duct tape. The painter's tape will help protect the surfaces wherever the 'curled duct tape' barrier is placed as the duct tape is adhered only directly over top the protective layer of painter's tape. Also, as a substitute to masking tape, plastic wrap can be wrapped tightly around the legs of a bed and used as the initial protective layer instead (where the curled duct tape is then placed over the plastic wrap).
Male And Female Bed bugs
Bed bugs provide an interesting and compelling example of a conflict of interest between mates. Generally, scientists have assumed that both male and female parents have similar interests in reproduction. However, bed bugs mate in a peculiar manner that is advantageous for males but downright dangerous for females. The genitalia of the female bed bug do not function in copulation. Instead, the male injects sperm through the abdominal wall into a paragenital organ, a phenomenon known as traumatic insemination. Traumatic insemination wounds the females and may also result in infection.
In an experiment designed to evaluate the effects of remating on female bed bugs, Stutt and Siva-Jothy (2001) assigned female bed bugs to two treatment groups. In the low mating frequency treatment, they placed virgin female bed bugs with virgin male bed bugs initially. After one week, they replaced the male bed bug with another male whose intromittent organ was glued to his abdomen and therefore nonfunctional. In the control group, each virgin female bed bug was placed with a virgin male for four weeks. Females in the low mating frequency treatment produced eggs at the same rate as the control bugs, indicating that additional copulation does not increase female fitness. However, females in the control group died at a higher rate, resulting in reduced lifetime reproductive success.
MaleCimex lectulariusproduce an abdominal wound in females during mating, a phenomenon that is likely to be costly to females. To investigate the fertilizing capacity of a single copulation, 20 virgin females each received a single copulation from a virgin male. The number and proportion of fertile eggs produced were counted over eight clutches (one clutch per week). Virgin females where allocated at random to one of two experimental treatments. In the first treatment group, females were allowed to copulate once with a virgin male (allocated at random), whereas in the second treatment group, females were allowed to copulate once with each of five virgin males (allocated at random). Females then were isolated and fed at weekly intervals, and the eggs were collected for five clutches.
North Bend swept host Junction City in a Sky-Em League match on Monday, 25-16, 25-23, 25-20, improving to 1-1 in league play.
The win continued a hot streak for the Bulldogs that started during the weekend.
North Bend was coming off taking the tournament title in the Estacada Invitational on Saturday.
The Bulldogs, who finished second in their morning pool to Scappoose, beat Fort Vancouver of Washington 25-16, 28-29, 15-7 in the quarterfinals, topped Scappose in the semifinals 25-13, 25-19 and beat host Estacada in the championship match 23-25, 25-20, 15-11.
The title was particularly impressive given some unusual circumstances, according to an article by OSAAtoday on the Oregon School Activities Association platform that reported:
North Bendhad an eventful but ultimately successful weekend at the Estacada Invitational on Saturday. The Bulldogs intended to stay the night before Saturdays tournament at a hotel in Wilsonville, but discovered bed bugs in their rooms, prompting a change.
The next morning, a fire alarm at the tournament disrupted pool play. North Bend finished second toScappoosein its pool, then won three bracket matches to take the championship. The Bulldogs defeatedFort Vancouverin three sets in the quarterfinal, exacted revenge on Scappoose in a semifinal sweep then recovered from a dropped set in the final toEstacada, which hadnt dropped a set all tournament long, to down the Rangers in three sets. Senior setterHayden Napiersparked North Bend with some great serving to start the final set.
We played a solid match and it was a great all-around team performance to beat the home team on their own turf, noted North Bend coachSummer Sawyer. We are a young team which has had a pretty rocky start coming off of a tremendous senior-led season last year. We are learning to work through the growing pains and this weekend was just what we needed to boost our confidence and morale!
North Bend hosted Cottage Grove on Thursday (results werent available by press time) and compete in the North Marion tournament this weekend.
PIRATES SWEEP LIONS:Marshfield got off to a fast start and dominated host Cottage Grove 25-3, 25-13, 25-13 to improve to 2-0 in Sky-Em League play.
Bridget Gould and Tatum Montiel had nine kills each and Paige Macduff eight. Ava Ainsworth had 23 assists and three aces. Gracie Peach had 13 digs.
The Pirates host Marist Catholic on Tuesday and then have their first match of the season at North Bend on Thursday.
RED DEVILS GET BIG WIN:Coquille outlasted visiting Cascade Christian in a five-set marathon for a key win in the Class 3A Far West League.
Coquille won 25-14, 14-25, 23-25, 25-15, 15-10, handing the Challengers their first league loss and improving to 3-0 in the process. This year, the 11 members of the league face each other just one time each.
Coquille, which was at Glide on Thursday, are at the Creswell tournament on Saturday and host St. Marys on Tuesday.
TIGERS TOP BRAVE:Bandon swept host Reedsport 25-8, 25-19, 25-21 for its second straight Valley Coast Conference win on Tuesday.
The Tigers are 4-1 in league play, the lone loss at home to Monroe on Saturday. They hosted Oakland on Thursday and will be at Illinois Valley on Tuesday. Reedsport is still seeking its first win and hosted Illinois Valley on Thursday. The Brave face Central Linn and East Linn Christian on Saturday in a pair of league matches at Waldport and then travel to Waldport again Tuesday to face the Irish.
BOBCATS FALL:Days Creek handed host Myrtle Point its first Skyline League Loss, beating the Bobcats 25-18, 25-21, 20-25, 25-22 on Tuesday. Myrtle Point fell to 3-1 heading into a home match against Umpqua Valley Christian on Thursday. They compete in the Mustang Classic at Mohawk High School on Saturday.
HORNETS SWEEP PACIFIC:The Pirates fell in a Skyline League match at Camas Valley 25-4, 25-18, 25-18 on Tuesday. Pacific fell to 0-4 in league play heading into a home match against Days Creek on Tuesday.