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Bed bug – Wikipedia

Saturday, December 10th, 2016

Bed bugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood. Cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is the best known as it prefers to feed on human blood. Other Cimex species specialize in other animals, e.g., bat bugs, such as Cimex pipistrelli (Europe), Cimex pilosellus (western US), and Cimex adjunctus (entire eastern US).[2]

The name bed bug derives from the preferred habitat of Cimex lectularius: warm houses and especially near or inside beds and bedding or other sleep areas. Bed bugs are mainly active at night, but are not exclusively nocturnal. They usually feed on their hosts without being noticed.[3][4][5]

A number of adverse health effects may result from bed bug bites, including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6] Bed bugs are not known to transmit any pathogens as disease vectors. Certain signs and symptoms suggest the presence of bed bugs; finding the adult insects confirms the diagnosis.

Bed bugs have been known as human parasites for thousands of years.[7] At a point in the early 1940s, they were mostly eradicated in the developed world, but have increased in prevalence since 1995, likely due to pesticide resistance, governmental bans on effective pesticides, and international travel.[8][9] Because infestation of human habitats has begun to increase, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well.[7][10]

Diagnosis of an infestation involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms.[6] Treatment involves the elimination of the insect (including its eggs) and taking measures to treat symptoms until they resolve.[6]

Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.[11] Effects include skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms.[6]

Although bed bugs can be infected with at least 28 human pathogens, no studies have found that the insects are capable of transmitting any of these to humans.[10] They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)[12] and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), but the significance of this is still unknown.[13]

Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases. However, arboviruses may be transmissible.[14]

Adult bed bugs are light brown to reddish-brown, flattened, oval-shaped, and have no hind wings. The front wings are vestigial and reduced to pad-like structures. Bed bugs have segmented abdomens with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. Adults grow to 45mm (0.160.20in) long and 1.53mm (0.0590.118in) wide.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color, and become browner as they moult and reach maturity. A bed bug nymph of any age that has just consumed a blood meal has a bright red, translucent abdomen, fading to brown over the next several hours, and to opaque black within two days as the insect digests its meal. Bed bugs may be mistaken for other insects, such as booklice, small cockroaches, or carpet beetles; however, when warm and active, their movements are more ant-like and, like most other true bugs, they emit a characteristic disagreeable odor when crushed.

Bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nesting locations, feeding, and reproduction.

The lifespan of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding.

Bed bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions.[15] Below 16.1C (61.0F), adults enter semihibernation and can survive longer; they can survive for at least five days at 10C (14F), but die after 15 minutes of exposure to 32C (26F).[16] Common commercial and residential freezers reach temperatures low enough to kill most life stages of bed bug, with 95% mortality after 3 days at 12C (10F).[17] They show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 3540C range even with loss of one-third of body weight; earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones.[18]

The thermal death point for C. lectularius is 45C (113F); all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46C (115F).[16] Bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres, however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.[19]

Bed bugs are obligatory hematophagous (bloodsucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey are unavailable.[20][21][22] They obtain all the additional moisture they need from water vapor in the surrounding air.[23] Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxide, secondarily by warmth, and also by certain chemicals.[24][25][26] Bedbugs prefer exposed skin, preferably the face, neck, and arms of a sleeping person.

Bedbugs have mouth parts that saw through the skin, and inject saliva with anticoagulants and painkillers. Sensitivity of humans varies from extreme allergic reaction to no reaction at all (about 20%). The bite usually produces a swelling with no red spot, but when many bugs feed on a small area, reddish spots may appear after the swelling subsides.[16]

Although under certain cool conditions adult bed bugs can live for over a year without feeding,[27] under typically warm conditions they try to feed at five- to ten-day intervals, and adults can survive for about five months without food.[28] Younger instars cannot survive nearly as long, though even the vulnerable newly hatched first instars can survive for weeks without taking a blood meal.

At the 57th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in 2009, newer generations of pesticide-resistant bed bugs in Virginia were reported to survive only two months without feeding.[29]

DNA from human blood meals can be recovered from bed bugs for up to 90 days, which mean they can be used for forensic purposes in identifying on whom the bed bugs have fed.[30][31]

A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with a stylet fascicle, rostrum, or "beak". The rostrum is composed of the maxillae and mandibles, which have been modified into elongated shapes from a basic, ancestral style. The right and left maxillary stylets are connected at their midline and a section at the centerline forms a large food canal and a smaller salivary canal. The entire maxillary and mandibular bundle penetrates the skin.[5]

The tips of the right and left maxillary stylets are not the same; the right is hook-like and curved, and the left is straight. The right and left mandibular stylets extend along the outer sides of their respective maxillary stylets and do not reach anywhere near the tip of the fused maxillary stylets. The stylets are retained in a groove in the labium, and during feeding, they are freed from the groove as the jointed labium is bent or folded out of the way; its tip never enters the wound.[5]

The mandibular stylet tips have small teeth, and through alternately moving these stylets back and forth, the insect cuts a path through tissue for the maxillary bundle to reach an appropriately sized blood vessel. Pressure from the blood vessel itself fills the insect with blood in three to five minutes. The bug then withdraws the stylet bundle from the feeding position and retracts it back into the labial groove, folds the entire unit back under the head, and returns to its hiding place.[5] It takes between five and ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.[32] In all, the insect may spend less than 20 minutes in physical contact with its host, and does not try to feed again until it has either completed a moult or, if an adult, has thoroughly digested the meal.

All bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination.[4][33] Female bed bugs possess a reproductive tract that functions during oviposition, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination.[4] Instead, the male pierces the female's abdomen with his hypodermic penis and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except Primicimex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege,[4] a component of the spermalege,[4] a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination.[34][35][36] Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structures called seminal conceptacles, with fertilisation eventually taking place at the ovaries.[35]

Male bed bugs sometimes attempt to mate with other males and pierce their abdomens.[37] This behaviour occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size, and males mount any freshly fed partner regardless of sex.[38] The "bed bug alarm pheromone" consists of (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disturbed, as during an attack by a predator. A 2009 study demonstrated the alarm pheromone is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males that attempt to mate with them.[36][39]

Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus mate with each other given the opportunity, but the eggs then produced are usually sterile. In a 1988 study, one of 479 eggs was fertile and resulted in a hybrid, Cimex hemipterus lectularius.[40][41]

Cimex lectularius males have environmental microbes on their genitals. These microbes damage sperm cells, leaving them unable to fertilize female gametes. Due to these dangerous microbes, males have evolved antimicrobial ejaculate substances that prevent sperm damage. When the microbes contact sperm or the male genitals, the bed bug releases antimicrobial substances. Many species of these microbes live in the bodies of females after mating. The microbes can cause infections in the females. It has been suggested that females receive benefit from the ejaculate. Though the benefit is not direct, females are able to produce more eggs than optimum increasing the amount of the females' genes in the gene pool.[42]

In organisms, sexual selection extends past differential reproduction to affect sperm composition, sperm competition, and ejaculate size. Males of C. lectularius allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid per mating. Due to these findings, Reinhard et. al proposed that multiple mating is limited by seminal fluid and not sperm. After measuring ejaculate volume, mating rate and estimating sperm density, Reinhardt et al. showed that mating could be limited by seminal fluid. Despite these advances, the cost difference between ejaculate-dose dependence and mating frequency dependence have not been explored.[43]

Males fertilize females only by traumatic insemination into the structure called the ectospermalege (the organ of Berlese, however the organ of Ribaga, as it was first named, was first designated as an organ of stridulation. These two names are not descriptive, so other terminologies are used). On fertilization, the female's ovaries finish developing, which suggests that sperm plays a role other than fertilizing the egg. Fertilization also allows for egg production through the corpus allatum. Sperm remains viable in a female's spermathecae (a better term is conceptacle), a sperm-carrying sack, for a long period of time as long as body temperature is optimum. The female lays fertilized eggs until she depletes the sperm found in her conceptacle. After the depletion of sperm, she lays a few sterile eggs. The number of eggs a C. lectularius female produces does not depend on the sperm she harbors, but on the female's nutritional level.[44]

In C. lectularius, males sometimes mount other males because male sexual interest is directed at any recently fed individual regardless of their sex, but unfed females may also be mounted. Traumatic insemination is the only way for copulation to occur in bed bugs. Females have evolved the spermalege to protect themselves from wounding and infection. Because males lack this organ, traumatic insemination could leave them badly injured. For this reason, males have evolved alarm pheromones to signal their sex to other males. If a male C. lectularius mounts another male, the mounted male releases the pheromone signal and the male on top stops before insemination.

Females are capable of producing alarm pheromones to avoid multiple mating, but they generally do not do so. Two reasons are proposed as to why females do not release alarm pheromones to protect themselves. First, alarm pheromone production is costly. Due to egg production, females may refrain from spending additional energy on alarm pheromones. The second proposed reason is that releasing the alarm pheromone reduces the benefits associated with multiple mating.[45] Benefits of multiple mating include material benefits, better quality nourishment or more nourishment, genetic benefits including increased fitness of offspring, and finally, the cost of resistance may be higher than the benefit of consentwhich appears the case in C. lectularius.[46]

Bed bugs have five immature nymph life stages and a final sexually mature adult stage.[47] They shed their skins through ecdysis at each stage, discarding their outer exoskeleton, which is somewhat clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults, and must consume at least one blood meal to complete each moult.[48]

Each of the immature stages lasts about a week, depending on temperature and the availability of food, and the complete lifecycle can be completed in as little as two months (rather long compared to other ectoparasites). Fertilized females with enough food lay three to four eggs each day continually until the end of their lifespans (about nine months under warm conditions), possibly generating as many as 500 eggs in this time.[48]Genetic analysis has shown that a single pregnant bed bug, possibly a single survivor of eradication, can be responsible for an entire infestation over a matter of weeks, rapidly producing generations of offspring.[49]

On the right is recently sloughed skin from its nymph stage

Blood-fed stage (note differences in color with respect to digestion of blood meal)

Sexual dimorphism occurs in C. lectularius, with the females larger in size than the males on average. The abdomens of the sexes differ in that the males appear to have "pointed" abdomens, which are actually their copulatory organs, while females have more rounded abdomens. Since males are attracted to large body size, any bed bug with a recent blood meal can be seen as a potential mate. However, males will mount unfed, flat females on occasion. The female is able to curl her abdomen forward and underneath toward the head to not mate. Males are generally unable to discriminate between the sexes until after mounting, but before inseminating.[50]

C. lectularius only feeds every five to seven days, which suggests that it does not spend the majority of its life searching for a host. When a bed bug is starved, it leaves its shelter and searches for a host. If it successfully feeds, it returns to its shelter. If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searchingregardless of whether or not it has eatenthe bed bug returns to the shelter to aggregate before the photophase (period of light during a day-night cycle). Reis argues that two reasons explain why C. lectularius would return to its shelter and aggregate after feeding. One is to find a mate and the other is to find shelter to avoid getting smashed after eating.[51]

C. lectularius aggregates under all life stages and mating conditions. Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. Airborne pheromones are responsible for aggregations. Another source of aggregation could be the recognition of other C. lectularius bugs through mechanoreceptors located on their antennae. Aggregations are formed and disbanded based on the associated cost and benefits. Females are more often found separate from the aggregation than males. Females are more likely to expand the population range and find new sites. Active female dispersal can account for treatment failures. Males, when found in areas with few females, abandon an aggregation to find a new mate. The males excrete an aggregation pheromone into the air that attracts virgin females and arrests other males.[52]

Bed bugs can exist singly, but tend to congregate once established. Though strictly parasitic, they spend only a tiny fraction of their lifecycles physically attached to hosts. Once a bed bug finishes feeding, it relocates to a place close to a known host, commonly in or near beds or couches in clusters of adults, juveniles, and eggswhich entomologists call harborage areas or simply harborages to which the insect returns after future feedings by following chemical trails. These places can vary greatly in format, including luggage, inside of vehicles, within furniture, amongst bedside cluttereven inside electrical sockets and nearby laptop computers. Bed bugs may also nest near animals that have nested within a dwelling, such as bats, birds,[53] or rodents. They are also capable of surviving on domestic cats and dogs, though humans are the preferred host of C. lectularius.[54]

Bed bugs can also be detected by their characteristic smell of rotting raspberries.[55]Bed bug detection dogs are trained to pinpoint infestations, with a possible accuracy rate between 11% and 83%.[56] Homemade and homeopathic detectors have been developed.[57][58]

Eradication of bed bugs frequently requires a combination of nonpesticide approaches and the occasional use of pesticides.[7][10]

Mechanical approaches, such as vacuuming up the insects and heat-treating or wrapping mattresses, are effective.[7][56] A combination of heat and drying treatments is most effective. An hour at a temperature of 45C (113F) or over, or two hours at less than 17C (1F) kills them;[56] a domestic clothes drier or steam kills bedbugs.[16] Another study found 100% mortality rates for bed bugs exposed to temperatures greater than 50C (122F) for more than 2 minutes.[59] Starving them is difficult as they can survive without eating for 100 to 300 days, depending on temperature.[56] For public health reasons, individuals are encouraged to call a professional pest control service to eradicate bed bugs in a home, rather than attempting to do it themselves, particularly if they live in a multifamily building.[60]

As of 2012[update], no truly effective pesticides were available.[56] Pesticides that have historically been found effective include pyrethroids, dichlorvos, and malathion.[10] Resistance to pesticides has increased significantly over time, and harm to health from their use is of concern.[7] The carbamate insecticide propoxur is highly toxic to bed bugs, but it has potential toxicity to children exposed to it, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has been reluctant to approve it for indoor use.[61]Boric acid, occasionally applied as a safe indoor insecticide, is not effective against bed bugs because they do not groom.[62][dubious discuss] The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being researched as of 2012[update] for its ability to control bed bugs.[63] As bed bugs continue to adapt pesticide resistance, researchers have examined on the insect's genome to see how the adaptations develop and to look for potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited in the growth and development phases.[64]

Natural enemies of bed bugs include the masked hunter insect (also known as "masked bed bug hunter"),[65]cockroaches,[66]ants, spiders (particularly Thanatus flavidus), mites, and centipedes (particularly the house centipede Scutigera coleoptrata). However, biological pest control is not considered practical for eliminating bed bugs from human dwellings.[16]

Bed bugs occur around the world.[67] Rates of infestations in developed countries, while decreasing from the 1930s to the 1980s, have increased dramatically since the 1980s.[7][10][67] Previously, they were common in the developing world, but rare in the developed world.[10] The increase in the developed world may have been caused by increased international travel, resistance to insecticides, and the use of new pest-control methods that do not affect bed bugs.[68][69]

The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, increased immigration from the developing world to the developed world, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests, resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides.[10][68] Declines in household cockroach populations that have resulted from the use of insecticides effective against this major bed bug predator have aided the bed bugs' resurgence, as have bans on DDT and other potent pesticides.[70]

The fall in bed bug populations after the 1930s in the developed world is believed partly due to the use of DDT to kill cockroaches.[71] The invention of the vacuum cleaner and simplification of furniture design may have also played a role.[71] Others believe it might simply be the cyclical nature of the organism.[72]

The common bed bug (C. lectularius) is the species best adapted to human environments. It is found in temperate climates throughout the world. Other species include Cimex hemipterus, found in tropical regions, which also infests poultry and bats, and Leptocimex boueti, found in the tropics of West Africa and South America, which infests bats and humans. Cimex pilosellus and Cimex pipistrella primarily infest bats, while Haematosiphon inodora, a species of North America, primarily infests poultry.[73]

In November 2016, a media report noted that tropical bed bugs, Cimex hemipterus, which had been extirpated from the state during World War II, were discovered in Brevard County, Florida and are expected to spread in distribution within the United States.[74][75]

C. lectularius may have originated in the Middle East in caves inhabited by bats and humans.[21]

Bed bugs were mentioned in ancient Greece as early as 400 BC, and were later mentioned by Aristotle. Pliny's Natural History, first published circa AD 77 in Rome, claimed bed bugs had medicinal value in treating ailments such as snake bites and ear infections. (Belief in the medicinal use of bed bugs persisted until at least the 18th century, when Guettard recommended their use in the treatment of hysteria.[76])

Bed bugs were first mentioned in Germany in the 11th century, in France in the 13th century, and in England in 1583,[21] though they remained rare in England until 1670. Some in the 18th century believed bed bugs had been brought to London with supplies of wood to rebuild the city after the Great Fire of London (1666). Giovanni Antonio Scopoli noted their presence in Carniola (roughly equivalent to present-day Slovenia) in the 18th century.[77][78]

Traditional methods of repelling and/or killing bed bugs include the use of plants, fungi, and insects (or their extracts), such as black pepper;[79]black cohosh (Actaea racemosa); Pseudarthria hookeri; Laggera alata (Chinese yngmo co | );[16]Eucalyptus saligna oil;[80][81]henna (Lawsonia inermis or camphire);[82] "infused oil of Melolontha vulgaris" (presumably cockchafer); fly agaric (Amanita muscaria); Actaea spp. (e.g. black cohosh); tobacco; "heated oil of Terebinthina" (i.e. true turpentine); wild mint (Mentha arvensis); narrow-leaved pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale); Myrica spp. (e.g. bayberry); Robert geranium (Geranium robertianum); bugbane (Cimicifuga spp.); "herb and seeds of Cannabis"; "opulus" berries (possibly maple or European cranberrybush); masked hunter bugs (Reduvius personatus), "and many others".[83]

In the mid-19th century, smoke from peat fires was recommended as an indoor domestic fumigant against bed bugs.[84]

Dusts have been used to ward off insects from grain storage for centuries, including plant ash, lime, dolomite, certain types of soil, and diatomaceous earth or Kieselguhr.[85] Of these, diatomaceous earth in particular has seen a revival as a nontoxic (when in amorphous form) residual pesticide for bed bug abatement. While diatomaceous earth performed poorly, silica gel may be effective.[86][87]

Basket-work panels were put around beds and shaken out in the morning in the UK and in France in the 19th century. Scattering leaves of plants with microscopic hooked hairs around a bed at night, then sweeping them up in the morning and burning them, was a technique reportedly used in Southern Rhodesia and in the Balkans.[88]

Bean leaves have been used historically to trap bedbugs in houses in Eastern Europe. The trichomes on the bean leaves capture the insects by impaling the feet (tarsi) of the insects. The leaves are then destroyed.[89]

Prior to the mid-20th century, bed bugs were very common. According to a report by the UK Ministry of Health, in 1933, all the houses in many areas had some degree of bed bug infestation.[90] The increase in bed bug populations in the early 20th century has been attributed to the advent of electric heating, which allowed bed bugs to thrive year-round instead of only in warm weather.[91]

Bed bugs were a serious problem at US military bases during World War II.[92] Initially, the problem was solved by fumigation, using Zyklon Discoids that released hydrogen cyanide gas, a rather dangerous procedure.[92] Later, DDT was used to good effect as a safer alternative.[92]

The decline of bed bug populations in the 20th century is often credited to potent pesticides that had not previously been widely available.[93] Other contributing factors that are less frequently mentioned in news reports are increased public awareness and slum clearance programs that combined pesticide use with steam disinfection, relocation of slum dwellers to new housing, and in some cases also follow-up inspections for several months after relocated tenants moved into their new housing.[91]

Bed bug infestations resurged since the 1980s[49] for reasons that are not clear, but contributing factors may be complacency, increased resistance, bans on pesticides, and increased international travel.[93] The U.S. National Pest Management Association reported a 71% increase in bed bug calls between 2000 and 2005.[94] The number of reported incidents in New York City alone rose from 500 in 2004 to 10,000 in 2009.[95] In 2013, Chicago was listed as the number 1 city in the United States with the worst bed bug infestation.[96] As a result, the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places in which they never established before, such as southern South America.[97][98]

One recent theory about bed bug reappearance in the US is that they never truly disappeared, but may have been forced to alternative hosts. Consistent with this is the finding that bed bug DNA shows no evidence of an evolutionary bottleneck. Furthermore, investigators have found high populations of bed bugs at poultry facilities in Arkansas. Poultry workers at these facilities may be spreading bed bugs, unknowingly carrying them to their places of residence and elsewhere after leaving work.[99][100]

"Good night, sleep tight, don't let the bed bugs bite", is a saying some people recite before they go to sleep.[101]

Bed bug secretions can inhibit the growth of some bacteria and fungi; antibacterial components from the bed bug could be used against human pathogens, and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[102]

The word bug and its earlier spelling bugge originally meant "bed bug". Many other creatures are now called "bugs", such as the "ladybug" ("ladybird" outside North America) and the "potato bug"; the word is used informally for any insect, or even microscopic germs or diseases caused by these germs, but the earliest recorded use of the actual word "bug" referred to a bed bug.[103]

The term "bed bug" may also be spelled "bedbug" or "bed-bug", though published sources consistently use the unhyphenated two-word name "bed bug".[104] The pests have been known by a variety of other informal names, including chilly billies, chinche bug, crimson rambler, heavy dragoon, mahogany flat, redcoat, and wall louse.[62]

Originally posted here:
Bed bug - Wikipedia

Absolutely ravaged by Bed Bugs! – InterContinental New …

Wednesday, September 7th, 2016

This was our first visit to New York and we stayed here between the dates of 24th and 28th of December and we stayed in a King Sky Room. Upon our initial arrival we were struck by the design, cleanliness and plushness of the place. The view was also great. The location is very central if you like that sort of thing (within walking distance to the hustle and bustle of Times Square - two blocks away).

After the first night my wife had came down with a number of rashes, I was strarting to feel a bit 'itchy' and noticed a few red marks on my body, night by night the itching was getting worse. It never occurred to us that this 350 a night would have bed bugs! It was only on the final night where the penny dropped and at 4.30am when we were rushing out to to go to the airport that we saw the bloated red bugs crawling around the covers (makes my skin crawl thinking about it again), in a rush I took a couple of photo's on my iphone (please see photos) and whilst rushing out for our taxi to the airport I mentioned to the person at the reception desk that there were bed bugs in our room I also showed him the photo's he assured me he'd investigate and call me back on the details I gave no response..

Fast forwards 3 weeks and after a number of emails back and forth with the management (Drew Schlesinger - General Manager for the hotel - who to be fair to him has been very friendly and has apologised for the ordeal) the Hotel are refusing to offer a refund despite the photo's clearly showing them in their room and a doctors report for the bites and rashes (I just wish I'd not rushed out - we had a flight to catch and a car was waiting for us - and showed the onsite manager the bed bugs in the flesh). They are instead proposing that we deal with an external insurance company based in New Jersey on their behalf! Unbelievable service!! Not only was our holiday ruined but now we also need to deal with an external insurance company to have any chance of getting a reimbursement. 🙁

Aside from the bed bugs and resultant ruined holiday, on a daily basis apart from the bed the rest of the room was not really cleaned in any way apart from the bed and taking the towels away - perhaps this was due to the snow conditions and staff could not get in to work - regardless it was very poor. Add that to the fact that in such a high end hotel you still have to pay for jumping on the wifi and to the fact that you get charged extortionate amounts for eating (what we thought were complimentary) m&m's and nuts left out on the table each morning - 92 for each day! 180 odd pounds for eating some m&m's and nuts that we thought were complimentary!!?? Crazy. If you do stay here make a mental note not to touch the nuts and chocolates that are left in that tray. Even though they look like they are complimentary they are soooooo not.

Aside from the shambolic experience we had in this hotel in future I think we will pursue a hotel not so squarely in the tourist trap area of Times Square. Areas like Greenwich and Tribeca appealed to us a lot more once we'd had a chance to explore a little bit around.

This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.

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Absolutely ravaged by Bed Bugs! - InterContinental New ...

Times Square location – Beware of bed bugs …

Wednesday, September 7th, 2016

I stayed at the Crowne Plaza Times Square April 10-14, 2007 for a business trip. I reserved a king non-smoking, but when I arrived at the hotel, I was put into a room that had a DOUBLE bed that FOLDED OUT OF THE WALL (room 2823). The room was teeny tiny and had adjoining rooms on each side. I could sit on the end of the bed and my knees would touch the television stand (and I am only 5'7"). The hotel had not turned on air conditioning yet (the hotel only turns it on during summer months) and the room was very warm. The window opened about 3 inches, but would not stay open so I had to prop it open with the guest services book.

So the room was small and hot and I could hear my neighbors conversation verbatim?? Okay, I can get over that, I am basically there just to sleep, right, and besides, this is on my company's dime, not mine. Not as easy at it sounds.....

That first night, the bed was basically like sleeping on a box spring, hard and uncomfortable. And I noticed that my legs were really itchy!! I thought I was either having a reaction to the laundry detergent used on the sheets, or the soap products the hotel carries.

The next morning I requested that I be moved to a different room because I was so displeased with room 2823. I was told I would not be moved unitl the 3rd day because the hotel was full. Fine, I thought, I can stand one more night of hearing the shrill laughter of my neighbors at 2 a.m. and my legs itching like mad.

On the third morning, I was moved to room 2815. Just a few doors down the hall but a world of difference from room 2823!! I got a king size bed and much more room. And the room's temperature was acceptable and there were no adjoinging rooms...hooray! I was much happier....But the itchy legs continued, and by this time, the itch had moved up to my stomach and arms.

On the morning of my departure, I was sitting on my bed putting on my shoes. I felt another bite and looked at my arm where I found a bug, similar in appearance to an appleseed, biting me. I smashed it and thought nothing more of it. I had never seen a bedbug, and besides, aren't they just the lure of a childhood rhyme?? WRONG

The bites still continued when I got home and again, I found a stupid bug (just like the first one) on my leg. Now I was really perplexed as to why I had seen this same bug at the Crowne Plaza and now again on my leg. I did some reseach on the internet, low and behold, I had discovered BEDBUGS!!! Yes, freaking BEDBUGS traveled back to North Carolina with me.

I had never seen a bedbug in my life until my stay at the Crowne Plaza, and now they are making me and my home their own personal feeding trough. I am going to have to get an exterminator now and who knows what that is going to cost? I don't, not yet anyway, but I bet it's not going to be cheap.

Thanks a lot Crowne Plaza, for your univited Begbugs guests and my future extermination bill. BEWARE of rooms 2823 and 2815.

And by the way, I informed the hotel, they have not responded to my complaints. Also, a co-worker stayed in room 2723 (just below my original room, but her's was a double, much larger and had only one adjoining room) and so far she has not been affected by bedbugs. We're keeping our fingers crossed.

This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.

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Times Square location - Beware of bed bugs ...

Travelers Beware — BED BUGS!! – Wyndham New Yorker Hotel

Thursday, June 2nd, 2016

The hotel is probably one of the best deals for the location alone. You're a short walk away to Times Square, Rockefeller, and tons of shopping.

We traveled with our 20 lb dog who requires a very small kennel when we're gone. We got to our room, and there was barely enough space for my fiance, myself, and our 2 bags. Luckily the closet was almost like a walk in, so we put the kennel in the closet and left the door of the closet open. Our view also left something to be desired - it was of another hotel room window. If you go to this hotel and have space issues, I would recommend that you request as large of a room as possible when you book. I understand room sizes are different in NYC, but it was borderline uncomfortable and claustrophobic. Had we been staying more than 1 night I would have requested a larger room.

The doormen and valets were probably the most friendly and polite individuals that I have ever met at a hotel. I was pleasantly surprised, and they were most helpful with directions and restaurant/bar suggestions, and they were not pushy for tips (though I would suggest that you do tip). The staff overall were very pleasant, especially considering that they were working during the holidays.

Overall, the hotel was clean (a true surprise because it is an older hotel, and pet friendly), the staff was friendly, and the location couldn't be beat. Not to mention, valet parking was only $30 for 26 hours.

Downsides: The small room, the view, the hard beds (however, bedbug free!), the scratchy sheets, and the lack of anywhere for my dog to do her business. We eventually find a pile of mulch outside of Macy's, but I wouldn't walk there alone at night.

This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.

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Travelers Beware -- BED BUGS!! - Wyndham New Yorker Hotel

Calif. couple posts skin-crawling video of bed bugs in NYC …

Saturday, May 14th, 2016

A California couple's vacation in Manhattan was ruined when they discovered bed bugs in their hotel room.

A California couple's vacation in Manhattan was ruined when they...

A viral video showing the bed bugs a California couple found on the mattress in their New York City hotel room will make your skin crawl.

In the six-minute clip,Elgin Ozlen of Long Beach, Calif., flips over the mattress at the Astor on the Park hotel to reveal black clusters of scurrying bugs.

"An infestation where my girlfriend slept last night..." Ozlen says in the clip. "I can't believe it. They're everywhere on the bed. I hope no one ever stays in here again."

Ozlen goes on to show a horrifying rash covering his girlfriend's body.

Ozlen and his girlfriend splurged on the $400-a-night Central Park hotel to celebrate New Year's Eve and his 30th birthday. He told the New York Daily News the getaway was ruined after his girlfriend received more than 75 bites spread across her fingers, toes, arms and stomach. The couple missed the ball drop on New Year's Eve, and on New Year's Day they had tickets to see the Rockette's but never made it to the show.

Katie Phillips of Australia was also staying at the Astor on the Park over New Year's and told ABC News her stay was "near perfect" and she didn't find any bugs in her room.

Ozlen's video has received nearly a million page views since he posted it on Jan. 1.

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Calif. couple posts skin-crawling video of bed bugs in NYC ...

HPD Bed Bugs New York City | New York Bed Bug Registry …

Sunday, May 8th, 2016

Click Free Pest Control Quote to fill in a form to obtain a free pest control quote today.

On November 16, 2011, HPD along with Council Speaker Quinn and Council Member Brewer announced the acquisition of two male bed bug sniffing dogs in an effort to combat bed bug infestations in residential properties. The beagles, Mickey and Nemo, are available to assist a team of four Code Enforcement Inspectors who have been trained to work with the dogs. The dogs will respond to bed bug complaints where the 311 operator has confirmed that the tenant would like to have the inspection performed by a dog; not every complaint where someone indicates that they are available for a dog will get such an inspection. The dogs were trained at an accredited facility to alert by sitting when they detect live bed bugs or viable eggs. The dogs findings will be confirmed by visual inspection before a violation is issued. Although the dogs cannot respond to all bed bug complaints in residential properties, they will serve as a valuable resource in detecting bed bugs in places that are difficult for people to detect, and in cases where there are a small amount of bed bugs or the bed bugs have not yet matured. For more information on the Bed Bug Canine inspections, click here.

The Department of Health and Mental Hygienes (DOHMH) Bed Bug Website at provides detailed information for tenants, property owners/agents and homeowners on how bed bugs thrive, how to recognize and inspect for their presence, steps to take to prevent them from infesting a home, how to safely rid an area of bed bugs if they do occur, and how to select and work with a pest management professional. You can also go to the Department of Housing Preservation and Developments (HPD) e-learning on bedbugs, which provides information on the above topics through an interactive format,using anaudio/ visual format.

Left untreated, bed bugs can spread quickly in multi-dwelling housing. Both the housing and health codes require that property owners address infestations promptly. The surest strategies to keep bed bugs from spreading are prevention, early detection and rapid treatment. As a tenant, the first action you should take if you believe that you have bed bugs is to notify your landlord. As a landlord, the first action you should take is to conduct an inspection of the reported condition. Knowing what to look for is key!

Bed Bug Complaints: Enforcement ProtocolHere is how the Citys enforcement protocols work:

ComplaintsWhen a complaint is made to 311 about bed bugs in a residential building, HPD attempts to notify a property owner/representative at the registered phone number about the complaint (For more information on registration,click here.) A housing inspector from HPD may conduct an inspection. The inspector examines places where bed bugs are commonly found, such as on and around mattresses, beds and head boards, as well as other potentially infested areas as directed by the tenant.

ViolationsIf the HPD inspector finds bed bugs, the property owner is issued an HPD Notice of Violation (NOV)(see Sample A)ordering that the condition be addressed.

When a NOV is issued by HPD, the property owner also receives a DOHMH Order of the Commissioner(see Sample B).The Commissioners order tells property owners in more detail what the requirements for addressing the bed bug problem are, including:

Inspect the apartment(s) cited for bed bugs.

If you find a bed bug infestation in the apartment(s), inspect all units adjacent to, above and below the infested units, as well as all common areas; and retain the services of a pest management professional certified and registered by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation to take all measures necessary to remove bed bug infestationwhere found.

Keep a record of all actions taken in compliance with the Order.

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HPD Bed Bugs New York City | New York Bed Bug Registry ...

Bed Bug Extermination in New York City, NY

Wednesday, April 27th, 2016

If You have Bed Bugs and you live in the NYC area. We Can Treat your bedbug problem in All Five Boroughs of New York, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, Bronx and Staten Island, Call Us Today: 1-212-203-0540

Bed bugs, you have heard the word but do you really know anything about this insect? Most people do not. Many do not even realize that they actually exist. But, they do and they may be lurking in your home, in your bedding or even in your carpeting.

It is essential that you take the time necessary to learn more about these pests. By doing this it will help you to succeed in treating them, and having a home that is free from an bed bug infestation of the worst kind.

While some of the information you will read here is a bit graphic, you will learn from it just why it is so important for you to rid yourself and your home of these nasty little creatures and what to do to get an NYC bed bug exterminator.

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Bed Bug Extermination in New York City, NY

Bed Bugs NYC – Travel

Monday, April 11th, 2016

How big are bed bugs? Here's one on a thumb.

Updated January 11, 2016.

Once thought to be eradicated from North America, the legendary little pests known as bed bugs have been making an unwelcome comeback in hotels and homes. Lest you think bed bugs are relegated to fleabag motels, they have been spotted in the posher locales as well.

What Are Bed Bugs? Bed bugs are the common name for Cimex lectularius, a reddish-brown, oval-shaped insect that can grow to a quarter of an inch long.

Bed bugs are wingless and survive by sucking blood from a host animal, preferably a human. See: Bed Bug Pictures and What's a Bed Bug?

Why Are They Called Bed Bugs? Bed bugs commonly hide in mattresses, carpets, behind peeling paint or wallpaper, and in crevices in wooden furniture (like in the cracks of the wooden headboard of a bed).

Bugs are nocturnal and typically bite people while they sleep in an infested bed. Bugs are usually active just before dawn. See pictures of bed bug bites.

Why Are Bed Bugs Reappearing? Bed bugs were once all but eradicated with broad-spectrum pesticides such as DDT, which killed a wide variety of bug types. Concerns about health and the environment led to many of these pesticides being removed from the market. Today, pest control methods are more focused, designed to kill a particular species (like cockroaches). Bed bugs, since they are not specifically being targeted, are slipping through the cracks.

Where Did Bed Bugs Come From? Bed bugs travel surprisingly well, and are quite comfortable stowing away in luggage and even clothing.

The bugs are increasingly found hiding in beds, upholstered furniture and behind baseboards in urban hotels in America. Since they tend to stow away and travel with humans, any place that sees a number of world travelers is susceptible. Pilots, wealthy people, and business travelers can bring bed bugs along unwittingly.

What Can You Do to Avoid Bed Bugs? Look around. Bed bugs are large enough to see. Look particularly under the mattress and in the seams, in and around the bed frame, and along any cracks or peeling paint in the wall or picture frames. Check for bed bugs in the cracks of any wooden furniture, particularly antiques. You can also spot droppings from bed bugs, which may be tinged with blood. See: Are Bed Bugs in My Hotel?

What Should You Do if You Are Bitten by Bed Bugs? Bed bugs bite exposed skin and leave behind small, red, itchy welts. The good news? Bed bugs are not generally thought to transmit any diseases. The damage is more emotional than physical. The CDC does say that bites from bed bugs can be treated with topical emollients or corticosteroids. You can also take an oral antihistamine. If you are exposed, you may consider treating your home as well. See: Are Bedbug Bites Dangerous?, Is This a Bed Bug Bite?, and Treatments for Bedbug Bites

What Should You Do if Bed Bugs Are in Your House? Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to eradicate. They hide well and can go up to a year without feeding. However, it's important to rid your house of them as soon as possible, as they can breed and spread very quickly. Most pest control companies are equipped to handle bed bugs. There are a few home remedies you can also use to protect yourself, your clothes and your furniture. See: Bed Bug Control and Bed Bug Spray

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Bed Bugs NYC - Travel

Bed Bug Laundry – $1.50lb Free Pickup and Delivery

Saturday, April 9th, 2016

Our bed bug laundry service includes both wet and dry cleaning clothes and household items.

Bed bugs are flat, wingless, blood-sucking insects less than a quarter inch long. They range in color from light brown to reddish-brown. Bed bugs lay up to 540 eggs in a lifetime, and each baby can be ready to reproduce in only 21 days. Bed bugs are a nuisance pest only and are not known to spread disease.

Where Do Bed Bugs Hide?

How Do I Control Bed Bugs?

If you have bed bugs, do not panic. Bed bugs can be contained and eliminated from your home with the proper course of action.

What You Should Do

Pest Control

It is recommended to hire a pest management company like Orkin to locate all bed bug hiding areas and apply a treatment that will effectively eliminate the population.

How Bed Bugs Spread Through Your House?

Bed bugs may originate in furniture brought from other locations.

Bed bugs may crawl through walls and enter new rooms.Lines indicate where people may transfer bed bugs to other locations of their house. Bed bugs are moved either by transferring them on their person or by moving them around in other items, such as laundry. Note: A laundry room in a different part of the house, could become a prime transfer location, as clothing from an infested room comes into contact with clothing going to other rooms.

Bed bugs are "lazy" insects. They do not run, travel long distances on their own, or fly. In fact, they may stay in the same location without food for up to one year!

Where Do Bed Bugs Come From?

Decades ago bed bugs were eliminated in the United States by certain pesticides, such as DDT, which have since been banned by the Environmental Protection Agency. Recently, with increased traveling, domestic and international, bed bug activity also began to resurge in this country as people moved around more. Although more environmental-friendly pesticides are on the market, some bed bug populations are becoming resistant to these chemicals. Until an effective pest management strategy can be developed, bed bugs are on the rise.

Bed bugs may be crawl into or attach themselves to clothing, luggage, furniture, or any other item a person leaves in an infested area. Wherever this newly infested item is moved, bed bugs can make a new home and stay.

How Do You Know You Have Bed Bugs?

Fact or Fiction?

Fact: Bed bugs are on the rise! They can be found any time, anywhere, and when you least expect them. You just dont know what other people bring with them.

Myth: Bed bugs are associated with filth. Truthfully, it does not matter to a bed bug how clean your house is. They are bloodsucking insects and are not attracted to food products.

Fact: Bed bugs do not carry disease. To date, there has been no proof that bed bugs carry disease pathogens or are able to transmit blood related disorders.

Myth: Bed bugs chew their way into your mattress or bore their way into your furniture. Truthfully, bed bugs cannot chew at all. They have mouthparts much like that of a mosquito. Therefore, they will only be found on the outside of your mattress, provided there are no holes already there. They also can crawl in between furniture seams, where two pieces are nailed together, but dont create new holes in furniture.

Fact: Bed bugs are nocturnal, meaning they are active (and bite) only at night. Bed bugs do hide during daylight hours and shy away from direct sunlight.

We service New York, New Jersey and Conecticut.

For more information, see our Bed Bug FAQs

See our Bed Bug Laundry page on Facebook

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Bed Bug Laundry - $1.50lb Free Pickup and Delivery

We left NYC with a souvenir…. BED BUGS !!!!!! – Review …

Thursday, April 7th, 2016

We brought our daughter and 5 of her friends for her sweet 16th birthday, the hotel was ok, old TV's, window air conditioners and not so pretty views, but we were mostly out and about, our stay was only 1 night, but long enough to bring home some very unwanted critters! I have only heard of bed bugs, but now we have a first hand experience, it took 2 weeks for us to realize we had a problem, by then our home was infested !! this is gross and very costly to get rid of !! We will never return to this hotel !!!!

This review is the subjective opinion of a TripAdvisor member and not of TripAdvisor LLC.

Allison R. When you called initially to report that you had bed bugs when returning from your trip, we immediately called our exterminating company to inspect the rooms that you stayed in. The exterminating company did a thorough inspection of the rooms that you stayed in and found no sign of bed begs. Even after discussing this in great detail with the Director of Operations, you continue to insist you got the bed bugs from the hotel and unfairly posted this review. As recently reported by many news sources, bed bugs have been found in many locations including popular retail chains, movie theaters, public transportation vehicles, restaurants and schools. Im not certain where you picked up the bed bugs, but based on the results of the inspection that was performed, I am certain it was not at the Belvedere. We have a very aggressive treatment program in place. When there is any report of bugs or insects in the hotel we immediately call for an inspection of the area, and if there are any signs of any bug, insect or pest, we immediately have the area exterminated. We also have regular maintenance treatments performed by our outside extermination company. There is a higher than usual incident of bed bug infestations in New York City, and no hotel is exempt. I am confident that our aggressive extermination program addresses this issue so that our guests are ensured a safe and comfortable stay free of any bug infestations.

This response is the subjective opinion of the management representative and not of TripAdvisor LLC.

We left NYC with a souvenir.... BED BUGS !!!!!! - Review ...

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